Herron

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Herron developed a model which classified inquiries on a scale of 0 (Confirmation/Verification) to 3 (Open Inquiry) depending on how much teacher structure is supplied and whether there is an already existing solution to the problem or question. I like this model because it ties in with my beliefs about the need for scaffolded/guided inquiry when students (of any age) are new to inquiry.

The following table is adapted from one on: http://edweb.sdsu.edu/wip/four_levels.htm

Level of Inquiry Teacher supplied problem? Teacher prescribed procedure? Solution known in advance?
0 Confirmation/Verification Y Y Y
1 Structured Y Y N
2 Guided Y N N
3 Open N N N

Herron, M.D. (1971). The nature of scientific enquiry. School Review, 79(2), 171- 212.

Modified Herron's Model

I have made some modifications to Herron's model (see table below). Firstly I have renumbered the levels as I feel that naming it 0 implies it is not inquiry. It is certainly very low-level inquiry but I believe it is still has a place at times. Secondly, I have restructured the table to make the desired outcome clearer. I have renamed the final level Independent Inquiry as I feel this more accurately describes the level. This table has been updated in 2016.

 

Level of Inquiry Student-generated Problem?  Student-designed/selected Procedure? Solution is  already existing/known?
1. Confirmation N

 

N

 

Y

 

2. Structured Inquiry Y

With Teacher Guidance

N

 

N

 

3. Guided Inquiry Y

With Teacher Guidance

Y

With Teacher Guidance

N

 

4. Independent Inquiry Y Y N

Table modified from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/wip/four_levels.htm

Adapted from: Herron, M.D. (1971). The nature of scientific enquiry. School Review, 79(2), 171- 212.

  2016 Jan-Marie Kellow
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